Chornohora is the highest mountain ridge in the Ukrainian Carpathians. There are six peaks with an altitude 2000 m. a.s.l. The range is a climatic barrier for air masses along the northwest – southeast. This study is important for understanding of the physical and geographical processes in the whole region. In addition, Chornohora not sufficiently researched compared to other mountain ranges of the Carpathians.
The High-Mountain Meteorological and Astronomical Observatory (HMAO) at Pip Ivan Mt. was opened on July 29, 1938. The National Institute of Meteorology (Poland) served it. Copies of the data sheets Meteorological Observations Results (pol. Wyniki Spostrzeżeń Meteorologicznych) from the HMAO at Pip Ivan Mt. were successfully preserved in the private collections (October 1938 – July 1939). As is characteristic of these altitudes, there was a significant dynamics of changes in weather parameters from day to day. The average monthly atmospheric pressure values were lower for the winter months than for the summer months. The average temperature at Pip Ivan for 10 months was 0.8°С. It should be noted that the total rainfall during the study period at the station was 942.5 mm. Permanent snow cover on Pip Ivan Mt. laid from December 5 to April 9. The average wind speed for 10 months was 9.7 m∙s-1.
Before the Second World War, there was also a branch of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Warsaw. The place is remarkable in terms of distance from light sources. However, the average cloudiness in October 1938 – July 1939 at Pip Ivan was 7.6 (on a scale of 0–10). Within 10 months, the average cloudiness less than 20% were only 18 days. This is not enough for the astronomical observatories.
From the available sources, we know that during the Soviet occupation (half of 1940 to June 1941) the weather station with a wide range of research was operated at the HMAO. We did not find any original records of observations of this period in Ukrainian archives. Probably after the collapse of the USSR, data stayed at the Archives of Russia's Federation. After the Second World War, the Observatory was abandoned and subjected to destruction of the natural environment.
Nowadays the Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University and the University of Warsaw are actively restoring the building of the Observatory. The modern name of the institution is the International Scientific Center "Observatory" (ISC "Observatory"). There already works 24/7 Ukrainian-Polish mountain search and rescue service. Also the following subdivisions are planned: meteorological and astronomical observations, integrated research laboratories with a wide spectrum of research on the Earth and environment, the place of practice for students and shelter for tourists. Recently (February 22, 2019) Precarpathian University signed a grant agreement: "Adaptation of former observatory on the Pip Ivan mountain for the needs of alpine rescue service training center" which includes the installation of a modern Automatic Weather Station. Within the framework of which large-scale studies are planned to measure the following parameters: atmospheric pressure (PA), air temperature (mean – TM, minimum – TN and maximum – TX), cloud cover (CC), precipitation (RR), snow depth (SD), wind speed (WS) and direction (WDu). Based on the recorded indicators of the dry and moistened thermometer and the humidity sensor, timely and average values of water vapour pressure (VP), relative humidity (RH), dew point temperature (DWPT), vapour-pressure deficit (VPD) and as well as evapotranspiration (ET) will be calculated. Also In the Observatory solar radiation instruments are preparing to install, with a large range of investigated parameters – from sunshine duration (SUD) or albedo (AL) to the measurements of ultraviolet A (UV-A) and B (UV-B). The weather station will also include the air quality monitoring system, which will measure the chemical gases in the atmosphere (e.g. O3, SO2, Nx, CO i CO2). With the support of other institutions, the range of air quality monitoring will be expanded.